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Tag Archives: Minoans

The Palace of Phaistos lies on the East end of Kastri hill at the end of the Mesara plain in Central Southern Crete. To the north lies Psiloritis, the highest mountain in Crete.


To the north lies Psiloritis, the highest mountain in Crete. On the slopes of Psiloritis is the Kamares cave, probably a religious or cult centre for Phaistos and the Mesara plain. In this cave a very fine pottery style was discovered from the Middle Minoan period, which has been named Kamares Ware after the cave in which it was found. Kamares ware has only been found at Palace sites like Phaistos and Knossos, suggesting that it was specially produced for whatever elite was based in the Palaces.

A couple of kilometres to the west of Phaistos is the important Minoan site of Ayia Triadha. To the south of Phaistos are the Asterousia mountains beyond which lies the Libyan Sea. To the south west is Kommos, the ancient port of Phaistos and to the east, the vast Mesara plain, the single largest fertile area in Crete, which in Minoan times was populated with small settlements with their distinctive tholos tombs.

The Old Palace

Phaistos: The theatral area, with the West Court and raised walkway
The theatral area, with the West Court and raised walkway

The Palace was excavated by the Italian archaeologist Halbherr at the beginning of the 20th century. The earliest settlements on the site, which lies close to the Yeropotamos, one of the few rivers in Crete to flow all year round, date from the Neolothic Period (c.4000 BCE) . It is likely that in the Early Minoan period small settlements were scattered over the hill on which the Palace later stood. Dark on light pottery (Agios Onouphrios ware) has been found in the prepalatial levels on the hill, but no Vasiliki ware from the Early Minoan II period has been found on the site.

The Old Palace was built on the site at the beginning of the Second Millenium, known as the Protopalatial Period (c.1900-1700 BCE). It required an enormous amount of work to build the palace. First of all three huge terraces were levelled. The palace was then constructed on two of these terraces, the Theatral Terrace and the Lower Terrace.

Very thick ground floor walls were built running east-west along the contour of hill, while less important walls and the walls of the upper floor rooms were orientated north-south. The walls were plastered and painted and in some rooms gypsum dados lined the lower part of the walls. In many rooms benches were built along some of the walls and niches were included in the walls themselves for storing small objects.

Phaistos: Part of the old palace east of the New Palace
Part of the old palace east
of the New Palace

Each of the three terraces would have had its own courtyard crossed by raised walkways to the west of the palace. The palace was built on two levels with the third floor of the wing on the lower terrace rising to the same height as the ground floor on the upper terrace.

The main entrance to the Palace, Room II, which to the modern eye looking at the remains of the neopalatial palace seems strangely located at the south end of the building, was in fact placed in a central position between the two wings of the Old Palace. Now blocked by structures from the New Palace, it would originally have led straight to the Central Court. Various other symmetrical architectural features were built into the West Facade, which would, to the Minoan visitor, have been one of the most impressive parts of the whole building.

There was a total of six entrances into the palace from the west court. Apart from the direct access through room II, the others would have gone through a maze of small rooms, some really very small, and made to seem smaller still by the benches lining some of the walls. The benches were covered with plaster similar to that used for buildings from the same period at Malia. The plaster covered the entire room.

Getting from room to room was not easy. Sharp turns would suddenly appear or one would be forced to change floor level. The orientation changed from east-west to north-south on the upper floor. Rooms in the West Wing were used among other things for storing pottery or agricultural produce, while others were used to prepare food and one group has been identified as a shrine, although the evidence cited may not be sufficient for a definite identification.

Phaistos: storage jar
Storage Jar

Twice it was severely damaged by earthquakes and rebuilt so three distinct phases are visible to archaeologists. Levi, who excavated here from 1950 to 1971 believed that the first two phases of the Old Palace of Phaistos constitute the oldest Palatial buildings in Crete. Finds at the site, apart from the Phaistos Disc, include thousands of seal impressions and some tablets containing the Linear A script from Middle Minoan II.

When the Old Palace was finally destroyed, almost certainly by an earthquake, a new palace was built on the site. Fortunately for us, the builders of the new palace did not destroy almost all traces of the old as they did at other sites. In fact much of the old palace was covered over at the time of the building of the new palace in order to level the ground. Some of the old palace can still be seen by visitors, especially the original West Facade and in the north-east corner, where the Phaistos disc was discovered. However, the remains of the West Wing of the Old Palace on the lower terrace are closed to the public. (But see link to photos of this area at the bottom of the page). In recent years Italian archaeologists have been taking a closer look at the Old Palace which should provide us with more information about this period of Minoan Crete at Phaistos.

The New Palace

It is very easy to get the impression that at the beginning of the Protopalatial period the Minoans built a number of palaces which continued unchanged for two hundred years and were then suddenly destroyed and immediately replaced by the New Palaces. But the history of the palaces is far more complex than that. We have already seen that the Old Palace at Phaistos suffered so much from earthquake damage that distinct rebuilding phases during its 200-year history are visible to archaeologists.

The New Palace is no more straightforward than the Old Palace. One of the excavators, F. Carinci, believes that although an attempt was made to rebuild the Palace at the beginning of the Neopalatial period in MM III, these efforts ground to a halt and that during the period MM IIIB-LM IA, the Palace was effectively abandoned. According to Carinci, construction of the New Palace did not finally begin until well into LM IA, possibly after the Thera eruption and that the New Palace was not completed until LM IB, right at the end of the Neopalatial period.

The New Palace covers a smaller area than the old. However, excavators were surprised by the lack of finds that one would expect at a Minoan Palace. No frescoes have been found in the New Palace and there is a complete absence of sealings and tablets. One view suggests that in the New Palace period the importance of Phaistos decreased while that of Agia Triada nearby continued to grow and that the two settlements complemented each other in some way.

A tour of the site

The site is entered at the level of the Upper West Court, which was used by both the old and the new palace. The Upper West Court is joined to the Lower West Court by a staircase which was built at the time of the upper court and was in use at the time of the Old Palace.

At the north end of the Lower West Court is a very high wall and in front of this wall is the theatral area (see photo above). There are nine steps where spectators either sat or stood to watch religious rites, ceremonies or whatever else took place there. Unlike the theatral area at Knossos which looks towards the Royal Road, the theatral area at Phaistos looks down onto the West Court. The West Court itself has raised walkways leading across it, one of which leads from the theatral area to the main entrance to the Old Palace.

Phaistos: The Magnificent Staircase
The Magnificent Staircase

The West Court and the theatral area date from the Old Palace period and after the destruction of the Old Palace at the end of MM IIB the west court was covered over to a depth of 1.3 metres as part of the reconstruction. Consequently the raised walkways disappeared and they were not replaced at the new, raised level. Moreover, only four steps remained of the nine rows of steps that were created in the Old Palace period. The west facade of the New Palace was located seven metres further east than the facade of the old palace. By covering the remains of the old West Facade, the size of the West Court was greatly increased. It has been suggested by Preziosi that the Grand Staircase from the Second Palace period was not an entrance to the palace at all, but a new theatral area. Palyvou rejects this interpretation on the grounds that the wings of the Palace on either side of the staircase would have obstructed the view of anyone seated on the staircase. Just how much the spectators’ view would have been restricted is contested, but even if the steps were used as a theatral area, this does not necessarily exclude their use as an entrance to the palace as well. The theatral steps at Knossos were almost certainly used for access to the area north of the Palace behind them.

Phaistos: The Monumental Propylaia
The Monumental Propylaia

The Palace of Phaistos, like all the other palaces except for Zakros, is oriented north-south. It is commonly accepted that the main entrance to the New Palace was from the West Court, up the dozen steps of the 14 metre wide Magnificent Staircase, at the top of which is an equally wide landing, behind which stood the Monumental Propylaia. This structure is the forerunner of the Propylaia of Classical Greek times.

Between the landing and the actual entrance itself, were two porticos. Hutchinson points out that if the West entrance to palaces was direct, then it was small, but if it was indirect then it was grand. Here, the main entrance does not lead directly into the Central Court and is very grand. It is, nonetheless, unusual for the main entrance to a palace to be in the west. Although there is a west entrance into the palace of Knossos, the main entrance was thought to be from the south.

Phaistos: The storage magazines
The Magazines where olive oil, wine
and wheat were stored

To the south of the Propylaia are to be found the Palace magazines or storage area. As at other Minoan palaces, including Knossos, the ground floor of the west wing was the main storage area. At Phaistos, the magazine consisted of ten rooms, five on each side, opening onto an east-west corridor, which at its east end opened out into a two-columned hall with a portico facing the Central Court. One storage room remains intact with a number of pithoi inside (see photo above).

South of the storage magazines was another, direct entrance into the Central Court (corridor 7). This corridor was originally sealed by two sets of double doors, one at the east end of the corridor and one at the west. Corridor 12 turned south from corridor seven into the heart of the south west wing of the Palace. Room 31 of the storage magazine block, on the north side of corridor 7 had a window, through which goods could presumably have been passed.

Hitchcock suggests that there may have been a south entrance to Phaistos like the Corridor of the Processions at Knossos. Unfortunately in this part of the south wing, only foundations survive. But there is a corridor shaped area (97) which leads towards the south end of the Central Court.

Phaistos: The Central Court
The Central Court

The Central Court lies to the east of the magazines. It measured 55 metres by 25 metres. The South East part of the Central Court is now missing. Given the large number of corridors which lead to the Central Court, it must have been central to the life of the Palace itself. It was lined on two sides by porticos with alternating columns and pillars.

The north-east wing of the palace is considered to have consisted of artisans’ workshops and the remains of a furnace for smelting metal can still be seen in the courtyard. The south-east wing collapsed some time in the past and the hill has eroded to beyond the point where it would have stood.

Phaistos: room with benches on west side of central court
First room (23) with benches on west
side of Central Court

Much of the West wing of the central court, south of the magazines, was used for religious purposes. It contained a number of rooms which opened directly onto the Central Court. Just south of the corridor of the magazines, in the West Wing, there are two pairs of rooms (8 and 9, 10 and 11) which Gessell calls the West Bench Sanctuary complex. In her view rooms 8 and 9 are respectively a preparation room and storeroom, while room 10 is a bench sanctuary and room 11 is a storeroom. Finds in rooms 8 and 9 include vases, conical cups and possible mortars or offering tables. In rooms 10 and 11, in addition to vases, storage jars and conical cups, there were also found a libation table, a female figurine and fragments of other figurines.

To the south of this group of rooms in the West Stoa facing directly onto the west court there are two rooms with benches lining the north and west walls (rooms 23 and 24) In room 24 the bench also lines the north east wall of the room. These benches were covered with gypsum, a material used extensively at Phaistos. Both these rooms open directly onto the west court. In room 23 there is a central pillar while in room 24 a low table is located in the centre of the room. While at first glance both rooms appear similar there are some differences. The entrance to room 23 is wider than entrance 24 which means anyone sitting there would have had a better view of the central court. Room 23 was without doors so access to the room could not be barred, while room 24 could be closed by a door. The differences between the two rooms suggest that they had different uses. Although it is hard to say what those uses may have been, clearly a room with no door would have been a much more public area than a room that could be closed off. Hitchcock suggests that the people sitting in room 23 were not only there to watch what was going on in the central court but were also there to be seen. She feels that members of some sort of council may have used the room.

Phaistos: second room with benches
Second room (24) with benches on West
side of the Central Court

Gesell suggests that room 24 may have been a bench sanctuary since she interprets the object in the centre of the room as an offering table. Certainly the benches lining the north and west walls imply some sort of ceremony taking place in the room. Hitchcock suggests that the benches may have been occupied by high status people before whom others entered the room and placed offerings or poured libations on the small table.

Further south there is a pillar crypt (room 22) similar to those found at other Palaces and also in the remains of the old palace at Phaistos, but this one is on a rather more modest scale than, for example, the one at Malia.

Trees and pillars seem to have been worshipped by the Minoans and more than 25 pillar crypts have been located at Minoan sites. Questions have been raised as to whether the pillars really were objects of devotion for the Minoans, but it is certain that in many of the small pillar crypts the pillars would not have been necessary to support the roof. An alternative explanation therefore has to be sought and there is evidence of pillar worship from other sources.

Phaistos: Pillar Crypt
Pillar Crypt (room 22)

The area also contained two lustral basins. Cult vases and figurines were found in this part of the West Wing, and the shapes of double axes were incised on the stone, all adding to evidence of a religious use for the building. The conventional view is that whereas the West Wing of the palaces was used for religious and administrative purposes, the East Wing contained the domestic apartments of the royal family.

However, a lustral basin was originally situated in the East Wing and if the purpose of the lustral basin was religious rather than hygenic, that would tell against the theory that the East Wing comprised domestic quarters.

At Phaistos, the so-called Royal Apartments are in fact in the north part of the Palace, to the East of the Monumental Propylaia. The smaller “Queen’s Megaron” lies to the south of the larger “King’s Megaron”. These rooms would have had light wells, porticos and pier-and-door partitions which would have enabled sections of the room to be closed off. The lower walls and floors were lined with slabs of alabaster (gypsum). To the west of the King’s room is possibly the best-preserved Lustral Basin in Crete.

A more intimate experience than Knossos

Phaistos: The Queen's Megaron
The “Queen’s Megaron”

On the slopes of the hill to the south of Phaistos and on level ground below the hill stood the Minoan town. This is still being excavated though part of it can be seen below from the perimeter of the Palace site.

There are many reasons why a visitor to Crete should make the effort to visit Phaistos. With the Messara plain to the east and the Ida mountain to the north, Phaistos has the most beautiful setting of any of the Minoan Palaces.

Another major advantage is the fact that it does not get quite so crowded as Knossos and even in the summer it is possible to have the site almost to oneself provided one arrives at opening time or alternatively an hour or two before closing time. Finally, it is a much more intimate site than Knossos where walkways of scaffolding scar the Palace and so much of Knossos has been roped off, preventing access to visitors, who must look from a distance. At Phaistos, everything can be seen easily and close up.

No doubt these measures were necessary to protect the Palace of Knossos from the hundreds of thousands of tourists who swarm all over the site from April to October each year. Similar measures may one day be necessary at Phaistos. Until then, an early morning or early evening visit will allow you to wander round the site in a way that simply isn’t possible at Knossos and to break off from looking at the ruins to view some of the most spectacular scenery that Crete has to offer.

Phaistos: The King's Megaron from the east
The “King’s Megaron” from the East

Phaistos: The King's Megaron
The “King’s Megaron”

Phaistos: The King's Megaron
The “king’s Megaron”

Phaistos: Lustral Basin
Lustral basin behind the “King’s Megaron”


The Palace of Knossos is located in North Central Crete just south of the outskirts of Heraklion on the Kephala hill.


The site was first occupied some time around 7000 BCE in what is called the Aceramic Neolithic period (aceramic because no pottery was produced). The Bronze Age was not to begin for a further four thousand years. It is thought that Knossos was the first and oldest Neolithic site in Crete and the first indication of human activity on the island is located in the exact area where the Palace and its Central Court were to be located. So humans had been continually active on the site for five thousand years before the First Palace was constructed.

Knossos viewed from above
Part of the West Wing

Although the Neolithic gave way to the Bronze Age, when no doubt new peoples arrived from the East, there is no evidence that the original population on the Kephala Hill was replaced by the newcomers. More likely was a gradual transition from neolithic to bronze age practices.

The Early Minoan II period seems to have been of some importance at various sites on Crete. Jan Driessen thinks it was important at Knossos as well. A large amount of EM IIB pottery has been uncovered at Knossos. It was found in locations which suggest that the ground had been cleared for construction during EM III.

As at other Palatial sites on Crete, large scale building preceded the actual construction of the First Palace. At Knossos this building activity appears to have begun during Early Minoan III. On the palace site itself there is very little evidence from this late Prepalatial period (Early Minoan III-Middle Minoan IA). What evidence there is tends to be found on the perimeter of the later palace or on the slopes of the Kephala hill on which the palace was built.

For example, there are prepalatial walls at Knossos (EM III-MM IA) to the north and south of the later palace. These walls already had the north-south, east-west orientation which would be used in the building of the later palace. Just outside the area where the palace was built a number of structures probably date to the prepalatial period. The Southwest Houses contained pottery from EM IIB-MM IA. A large wall running south from the north west corner of the area where the first palace would later be built may well have been a terrace wall supporting a flat level on which some structure was built. Very little can be said at present of this structure except that it was not a palace. In the West Court some houses were discovered under the kouloures which were built during the protopalatial period.

The First Palace

Knossos: The West Porch with the west facade behind
The West Porch with the west facade behind

Although some archaeologists argue on the basis of the limited finds from EM III-MM IA for a continuity in building on the site from the prepalatial period, Colin Macdonald, who has spent much of his career excavating different parts of the Palace, finds the evidence unconvincing and it is still generally accepted that the First Palace was built during Middle Minoan IB-IIA, with the southern half possibly being completed a little later than the West, North and East wings.

By the end of MM IIA the palace covered an area of almost 10,000 square metres on the ground floor alone. Access to the Palace was easier during the Protopalatial period than it was to become later. It therefore continued in one form or another for about five hundred years. It signified the transition of Minoan Crete from a clan-based society into a hierarchical one, with an urban elite, though some archaeologists claim that there may have been several competing elite groups, what they call a heterarchy.

Knossos: The West Facade and the West Court
The West Facade and the West Court

At other Palace sites, like Phaistos, the old palace suffered a major destruction. The ground was subsequently levelled and a new palace was constructed. This does not appear to have happened at Knossos. According to Colin Macdonald the construction of a monumental building around a central court at Knossos may have been “a long project that lasted for several generations, punctuated by destructive episodes, notably in MM IB and reaching a conclusion in MM IIA only to be damaged at the end of that period and again in MM IIB, after which it was largely rebuilt over MM III along the same lines but with markedly different architectural elements.”

So, although parts of the Palace certainly suffered from earthquake destruction a number of times over the ensuing five hundred years, the Old Palace was never levelled or covered over in order for a new palace to be built on top. New areas were added to the Palace and sections damaged by earthquake were rebuilt, often in a different way from the sections that preceded them. But the palace was never replaced by a completely new building.

From the First Palace period would date the West Facade which is thought to have had an upper floor with windows looking out over the West Court. Also dating from this period would have been the raised walkways in the West Court, and the kouloures, three large circular pits sunk into the West Court and whose use is still a subject of debate. The royal Road, which approaches the north west corner of the palace from the Minoan town, was one of a number of roads that would have been constructed by some central authority and were yet another indication of the transformation that was taking place in Minoan society. By Middle Minoan III there were also drainage systems in parts of the Minoan town and in the Domestic Quarter and the North Entrance of the Palace.

Knossos Storage magazines</div>
Storage magazines

Another innovation of the First Palace period were the magazines which take up much of the ground floor of the West Wing of the Palace and make such an impressive sight for visitors today. Their current appearance, however, dates from a later period. There has been much discussion about the role of the storage facilities in the Minoan Palaces and some have argued that the Palaces acted as redistribution centres for produce coming in from the countryside. Howevever it has been calculated that the storage capacity of the Palaces would not have been adequate for such a task and it is more likely that the storage was for goods consumed by people working at the Palace or those attending the feasting ceremonies which seem to have been such an important part of Palace life.

There is already evidence by the Middle Minoan IB period of a strongly hierarchical aspect to this feasting with one deposit yielding up a collection of vessels of varying quality with very few of the highest quality and rather more of lower quality.

There were certainly workshops in and around the Palace. Loomweights provide evidence of weaving activity but it is not known whether workshops were directly under the control of the Palace. No sign has yet been found of a large area outside the palace devoted to skilled craft production like Quartier Mu at Malia.

The New Palace

At the end of Middle Minoan IIB other palaces in Crete were so thoroughly damaged that they had to be rebuilt. It seems that this was not the case at Knossos, which may have been far enough away from the epicentre of the earthquake to escape the complete devastation that hit the palace at Phaistos. During the Middle Minoan IIIA period which followed the palace destructions elsewhere, the Palace at Knossos did not undergo any dramatic architectural transformation. Other changes, however, became noticeable. For example, the writing script at Knossos had been Cretan Hieroglyphic while in the south at Phaistos, Linear A was preferred. Now Linear A came to Knossos and over a period of time it replaced the use of the Cretan Hieroglyphic.

Knossos horns of consecration

Another major development at Knossos at the beginning of the Neopalatial period was the development of foreign trade, in particular in the South Aegean and Asia Minor. What all this meant for the position of Knossos on the island of Crete itself is not well understood.

That is not to say that changes in the Palace did not take place. Colin Macdonald claims that there were in effect three New Palaces which he calls the New Palace (MM IIIB), the Frescoed Palace (Late Minoan IA) and the Ruined Palace (LM IB). He also points out that there then followed the Mycenaean Palace. This categorisation is not universally accepted.

Knossos was hit by a massive earthquake at the end of MM IIIA and this resulted in major rebuilding work. Much of the West part of the palace was levelled and built over while basement rooms on the east side were filled with rubble to create new terraces for building on. So the New Palace effectively dates from MM IIIB. Then, towards the end of MM IIIB another earthquake struck, resulting in more demolition and rebuilding during LM IA. The palace we see today dates largely from this period.

The main changes to the Palace during the Neopalatial period included the filling in of the kouloures which resulted in an enlargement of the West Court. A major entry route into the palace passed along the Corridor of the Procession to the south of the West Facade and from there through the South Propylaeum, where stairs led to the first floor of the West Wing (but see page 1 of the Tour of the Palace where these structures are questioned). Also in the West Wing, the Throne Room with its adjacent lustral basin and associated rooms also dates from Middle Minoan III, though like so much else, the form of the room that we see now dates to a later period.

On the East side of the Central Court the Grand Staircase and the Domestic Quarters two floors below, are a creation of the Neopalatial period. Also on the East side was the Great East Hall, where more storage facilities were located on the ground floor. To the North East a new entrance was constructed using ashlar masonry and the North Entrance Passage was built and decorated with a famous wall painting (see logo at the of the page). The Neopalatial period also sees the widespread creation of wall paintings on a variety of subjects including the famous bulls and scenes of ceremonies.

The Final Palace period

Around 1450 BCE there was widespread destruction throughout the island of Crete. All the other palaces were destroyed as were many towns and villages, although it tended to be the prestige buildings that were primarily targeted. While there was some damage to the Palace at Knossos it was not destroyed in the same way as the other Palaces. Ashlar masonry went out of use, replaced by the increased use of gypsum. Architectural changes to the palace showed inferior quality of materials. A lot of the changes made during this period were removed by Evans during his excavation of the Palace and in Colin Macdonald’s words “Evans had stripped most of the palace down to its Middle Minoan III to Late Minoan I skeleton, so that it’s later plan is now difficult to reconstruct.”

One of the most important developments during this period of the history of Knossos is the arrival of Linear B. Although there are differences between Linear A and Linear B scripts the most significant difference is that Linear B has been deciphered and is now known to be an early form of the Greek language spoken by the Mycenaeans while Linear A, which remains undeciphered, represents a different language. It seems likely that the Mycenaeans had a presence at Knossos from Late Minoan II onwards but the exact nature of that presence is not known.

When the Palace was finally destroyed a large number of clay tablets and sealings were baked, and therefore preserved, in the fire. The town survived the destruction of the palace which seems to have been left deserted but much of the evidence from this period, which would have formed the top layers over the site at Knossos were removed by Evans and so vital evidence about this period has been lost.

The date of the final destruction of the Palace at Knossos is still the subject of debate with suggestions varying from Late Minoan II, to Late Minoan IIA or IIIB. Macdonald favours a Late Minoan III A2 (1325-1300 BCE) date for the final destruction of what he calls the Linear B palace.